As an independent navigation method, inertial navigation system(INS) has played a huge advantage in a lot of special conditions. But its positioning error will accumulate with time, so it is difficult to work independently for a long time. The vehicle loaded with the inertial navigation system usually drives on the road, so the high precision road data based on geographic information system(GIS) can be used as a bind of auxiliary information, which could correct INS errors by the correlation matching algorithm. The existing road matching methods rely on mathematical models, mostly for global positioning system(GPS) trajectory data, and are limited to model parameters. Therefore, based on the features of inertial navigation trajectory and road, this paper proposes a road data aided vehicle inertial navigation method based on the learning to rank and iterative closest contour point(ICCP) algorithm. Firstly, according to the geometric and directional features of inertial navigation trajectory and road, the combined feature vector is constructed as the input value; Furthermore, the scoring function and RankNet neural network based on the features of vehicle trajectory data and road data are constructed, which can learn and extract the features; Then, the nearest point of each track point and its corresponding road data set to be matched is calculated. The average translation between the two data sets is calculated by using the position relationship between each group of track points to be matched and road points; Finally, the trajectory data set is iteratively translated according to the translation amount, and the matching track point set is obtained when the trajectory error converges to complete the matching. During experiments, it is compared with other algorithms including the hidden Markov model(HMM) matching method. The experimental results show that the algorithm can effectively suppress the divergence of trajectory error. The matching accuracy is close to HMM algorithm, and the computational efficiency can meet the requirements of the traditional matching algorithm.